Picture 1:Electrical noise filter, I've been told it is for the tach, it just gets grounded.
ossibly fuel pump check connector, but it's in the wrong place. FPCC *SHOULD* be over on the trans side of the engine bay.
Picture 3:Refer to #2
on't think so.
Picture 5:Slack at the top of the cam gears is quite common, and isn't as big of a deal as people make it out to be. Different cams are going to have different amounts of slack there. Ofcourse you want it to have some tension, but even just a little bit of tension over the large amount of surface area touching the gear is going to provide plenty of power/resistance to skip. The place you really want to pay attention to the tension is the cranks sprocket and tensioner pulley (imagine that).
I do not have Link, so I can't say anything about the logs, but the sound bytes you uploaded sounded similar to a lot of DSM's that have wastegates on just on runner of the exhaust manifold. I do have bad ears though. If there's a junkyard nearby, try to get a set of coils and an ignitor (also called the ignition transistor). Last time I got those at a junkyard it was a whopping total of $20.